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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Extra Questions Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources
Extra Questions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources
NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Extra Questions Very Short Answers Type
Give the reason for uneven distribution of population in different parts of the world?
Varied characteristics of land and climate.
Mention the physical factors which determine the land use pattern.
- availability of water.
Which are the major threats to our environment?
- Land degradation,
- soil erosion,
What is soil?
The thin layer of grainy substance covering the surface of the earth is called soil.
Give two reasons of water shortage or water scarcity.
(i) Variation in annual or seasonal precipitation.
(ii) Over-exploitation of water.
(iii) Contamination of water.
Mention two major contaminants of water bodies.
(i) Discharge of untreated or partially treated sewage.
(ii) Agricultural chemicals.
(iii) Industrial effluents.
On which two factors does the growth of vegetation depend?
(i) Temperature and
How are the major vegetation types of the world grouped?
Give one main reason for the clearance of forest?
To feed the growing population or to increase agricultural land.
What is the total account of freshwater over the earth?
Where does the government get money for public facilities?
The government gets money from taxes collected from people for public facilities.
Ocean water is and is not fit for human use.
State true or false:
Water is a non-renewable natural resource.
NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Extra Questions Short Answers Type
What do you understand by land use?
Using of land for different purposes like agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses, roads and setting up of industries is commonly termed as land use.
Distinguish between private land and community land.
|Private land||Community land|
|Private land is owned by individuals.
Private land is used to build houses, agriculture etc.
|Community land is owned by the community.
Community land is used for common uses like collection of fodder, fruits, nuts or medicinal herbs.
Mention the common methods used to conserve land.
(ii) land reclamation,
(iii) regulated use of chemical pesticides and fertilisers,
(iv) checks on overgrazing.
Mention the factors of soil formation.
(i) Parent rock,
(iv) organic matter,
Mention the factors which lead to soil degradation.
(iii) overuse of chemical fertilisers or pesticides,
(iv) rain wash,
What is terrace cultivation?
On steep slopes, terraces are made so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops. It reduces surface run-off and soil erosion.
Define contour ploughing.
Ploughing is done parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.
Which method of soil conservation is practiced in the coastal and dry regions?
In coastal and dry regions, rows of trees are planted to check the wind movement to protect soil cover.
What do you understand by water cycle?
Movement of water through the oceans, the air, the land and back again, through the process of evaporation and precipitation is called water cycle.
What are the major factors leading to shortage in supply of fresh water?
(i) Increasing population,
(ii) rising demands for food and cash crops,
(iii) increasing urbanisation,
(iv) rising standards of living.
Which regions of the world face scarcity of water?
(ii) West Asia,
(iii) South Africa,
(iv) parts of Western USA,
(v) North-West Mexico,
(vi) parts of South America,
Define biosphere and ecosystem.
Write the difference between biosphere and ecosystem.
(i) Biosphere – It is the narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
(ii) Ecosystem – In the biosphere, living beings are interrelated and interdependent on each other for survival. This life supporting system is called ecosystem.
Various species of natural vegetation and wildlife have become vulnerable or endangered and some are at the verge of extinction. Why? Give reasons.
Deforestation, soil erosion, construc-tional activities, forest fires and landslides are some of the human made and natural factors which together accelerate the process of extinction of natural vegetation and wildlife.
Why are animals poached?
Animals are poached for collection and illegal trade of hides, skins, nails, teeth, horns as well as feathers.
What are landslides?
Landslides are mass movement of rock, debris or earth down a slope. They include a broad range of motions whereby falling, sliding and flowing under the influence of gravity dislodges earth material.
Give two main reasons of forest fire.
(i) Natural fire due to lightening.
(ii) Fire purposely caused by local inhabitants.
NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Extra Questions Long Answers Type
Varied characteristics of land and climate affect the distribution of population. Explain how.
Varied characteristics of land and climate affect the distribution of population in the following ways –
(i) The rugged topography, steep slopes of mountains, low-lying areas susceptible to water logging, desert areas, thick forested areas are sparsely populated or uninhabited.
(ii) Fertile plains and river valleys offer suitable land for agriculture. Therefore, these are densely populated.
Explain how various factors affect soil formation.
(i) Parent Rock – It determines colour, texture, chemical properties, mineral content and permeability of the soil.
(ii) Relief – Altitude and slope determine the accumulation of soiL
(iii) Climate – Temperature and rainfall influence rate of weathering and humus formation.
(iv) Time – It determines the thickness of soil.
(v) Flora, Fauna and micro-organisms – These affect the rate of humus formation.
Describe five methods of soil conservation.
- Mulching – The bare ground between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter like straw. It helps to retain soil moisture.
- Contour barriers – Stones, grass, soil are used to build barriers along contours. Trenches are made in front of the barriers to collect water.
- Agroforestry – Crops are grown along with trees on the boundaries of the fields to check soil erosion.
- Rock dam – Rocks are piled up to slow down the flow of water. This prevents gully erosion.
- Intercropping – Different crops are grown in alternate rows and are sown at different times to protect the soil from rain wash.
Describe the distribution of water on the earth’s surface.
(i) Oceans cover two-thirds of the earth’s surface.
(ii) The fresh water accounts for only about 2.7 percent of the total. Nearly 70 per cent of this occurs as ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland and mountain regions. Only one per cent of fresh water is available as ground water, surface water in rivers and lakes and as water vapour in the atmosphere.
Mention the various ways of water conservation.
- The rainwater can be collected from the rooftop with the help of pipes in tanks, sumps, ponds or lakes. It also helps in recharging of groundwater.
- The canals must be properly lined to minimise losses by water seepage.
- Sprinklers effectively irrigate the area by checking water losses through seepage and evaporation.
- In dry regions with high rates of evaporation, drip irrigation is very useful.
Write four advantages of rainwater harvesting.
- It makes ecological and financial sense not to waste pure natural resources available in large quantity on rooftop.
- It encourages water conservation and self-dependence.
- If water does not contain any organic material and is stored in a clean container, it remains pure for long time.
- It prevents groundwater depletion and is a good supplement to piped water.
How are plants useful to us?
Write the various uses of plants.
- Plants provide us timber.
- Give shelter to animals.
- Produce oxygen we breathe.
- Protect soil which is essential for growing crops.
- Act as shelterbelts.
- Help in storage of underground water.
Give us fruits, nuts, latex, turpentine oil, gum, medicinal plants, paper, etc.
Explain how animals are useful to us.
- Animals provide us with milk, meat, hides and wool.
- Insects like bees provide us with honey, help in pollination of flowers and have an important role to play as decomposers in the ecosystem.
- The birds feed on insects and act as decomposers as well. Vulture, due to its ability to feed on dead livestock, is a scavenger and considered a vital cleanser of the environment.
Describe how the growth of forests depends on rainfall.
- Huge trees and dense forests are found in the areas of heavy rainfall.
- Short stunted trees grow in the regions of moderate rainfall.
- Thorny shrubs and scrubs grow in dry areas of low rainfall.
- Tundra vegetation of cold Polar Regions comprise of mosses in lichens.
Write the major causes of landslides.
Major causes of landslides are as follows:
- Topographic variables – Relief, slope.
- Geological – Lithology, fault/thrust/ lineaments.
- Morphological causes – Drainage density, dissected surface, stream action.
- Triggering factors – Rainfall, earthquake.
- Anthropogenic – Land use, excavation on slope.
Mention some mitigation techniques of landslides.
- Hazard mapping, locate areas prone to landslides. Hence, such areas can be avoided for building settlements.
- Construction of retention wall to stop land from slipping.
- Increase in the vegetation cover.
- The surface drainage control works are implemented to control the movement of landslide along with rainwater and spring flows.
Mention the steps that can be taken to protect plants and animals.
- National parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves are made.
- Awareness programmes like social forestry and van Mahotsav should be encouraged at the regional and community level.
- School children should be encouraged for bird watching and visiting nature camps so that they appreciate the habitat of varied species.
- Laws must be passed declaring the trade and killing of birds and animals is illegal.
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