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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions Industries
Extra Questions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers Industries
NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions Very Short Answers Type
On what bases industries can be classified?
Industries can be classified on the following bases:
(i) raw materials,
Classify the industries on the basis of ownership.
Private sector, state-owned or public sector, joint sector and co-operative sector.
Name the major industrial regions of the world.
- Eastern North America
- Western and Central Europe
- Eastern Europe
- Eastern Asia.
Why do industrial accidents or disaster occur?
Industrial accidents occur mainly due to technical failure or irresponsible handling of hazardous material.
Name the countries where iron and steel industry is located.
Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia.
In which countries is textile industry concentrated?
India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.
In which countries do the major hubs of Information Technology (IT) industry lie?
(i) Silicon Valley in Central California.
(ii) Bangalore region of India.
Why is iron and steel industry called a feeder industry?
Iron and steel industry is called a feeder industry because its products are used as raw materials for other industries.
Write the names of great lakes of North America.
Superior, Huron, Ontario, Michigan and Erie.
Name the regions of Pittsburgh where large steel mills are located.
(i) Valley of Monogahela river.
(ii) Valley of Allegheny river.
(iii) Along the river Ohio.
Give examples of natural fibres.
Wool, silk, cotton, linen and jute.
Give examples of man-made fibres.
Nylon, polyester, acrylic, rayon.
Which countries are the important producers of cotton textiles?
India, China, Japan and USA.
India has a glorious tradition of producing good quality cotton textiles. Give examples of Indian handspun and handwoven cloth.
- Muslins of Dhaka
- Chintzes of Masulipatnam
- Calicos of Calicut
- Gold-wrought cotton pieces of Burhanpur, Surat and Vadodara.
When and where was the first successful modem textile mill established?
In 1854 at Mumbai.
Name an important textile centre of Japan.
Osaka is an important textile centre of Japan. It is also known as ‘Manchester of Japan’.
From which countries does Japan import cotton?
Egypt, India, China and USA.
Which industries have replaced the cotton textile industry of Osaka?
Iron and steel, machinery, shipbuilding, automobiles, electrical equipments and cement.
Define Information Technology industry.
The information technology industry deals in the storage, processing and distribution of information.
Which factors guide the location of IT industry?
Resource availability, cost and infrastructure.
Name the major hubs of the IT industry.
(i) Silicon Valley, California
(ii) Bangalore, India.
NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions Short Answers Type
What do you understand by secondary activities? Explain with the help of example.
Secondary activities change raw materials into products of more value to people. For example, pulp is changed into paper and paper into a note book.
Explain how products of mineral-based industries feed other industries.
Iron made from iron-ore is the product of mineral-based industry. This is used as raw material for the manufacture of various products such as heavy machinery, building materials and railway coaches.
What is the difference between private sector and public sector industries?
Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. Public sector industries are owned and operated by the government.
Write the difference between joint sector and co-operative sector industries.
Joint sector industries are owned and. operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.
Co-operative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both.
Name the major industrial regions of India.
- Mumbai-Pune cluster
- Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region
- Hugli region
- Ahmedabad-Baroda region
- Chottanagpur industrial belt
- Visakhapatnam-Guntur belt
- Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region
- Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram region.
What was the cause of industrial disaster which occurred in Bhopal on 3 December, 1984?
The industrial disaster in Bhopal on 3 December, 1984 occurred due to the leakage of highly poisonous Methyl Isocynate (MIC) gas alongwith Hydrogen Cyanide and other reactive products.
What are ‘Sunrise Industries’? Give examples of such industries.
Emerging industries are also known as ‘Sunrise Industries’. For example, Information Technology, Hospitality and Knowledge.
Mention the inputs of iron and steel industry.
The inputs of iron and steel industry are:
- Raw materials – iron-ore, coal, limestone
- other infrastructure.
Write two characteristics of steel.
(i) Steel is hard and it can easily be shaped, cut or made into wire.
(ii) Special alloys of steel can be made by adding other metals like aluminium, nickel and copper. It gives unusual hardness, toughness or ability to resist rust.
After 1950, why did iron and steel industry begin to be located on flat land and near sea ports?
After 1950 iron and steel industry began to be located on flat land near sea ports because steel works had become very large and iron-ore had been imported from overseas.
Name the imgor steel producing centres of India. Also, mention the states where they are located.
|Steel producing centres||States where they are located|
Why has the cotton textile industry spread to different parts of the country?
Cotton textile industry has spread to different parts of the country because:
(i) Raw cotton is a pure and light weight raw material.
(ii) Humidity can be created artificially which is important for cotton textile.
Why could traditional cotton textile not compete with new textile mills of the West (Europe)?
(i) The production of hand woven cotton textile was expensive and time consuming.
(ii) Textile mills of the West (Europe) produced cheap and good quality fabrics.
Name some major cotton textile centres of India.
Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Pondicherry and Panipat.
Why have textile mills been closed down in Ahmedabad?
Textile mills have been closed down in Ahmedabad because:
(i) New textile centres have emerged in India.
(ii) Machines and technology have not been upgraded.
Name the two major hubs of IT industry. Also, write their locations.
(i) Bangalore is located on the Deccan Plateau of India.
(ii) Silicon Valley is a part of Santa Clara Valley, located next to the Rocky Mountains of North America.
Name some emerging information technology hubs in India.
Mumbai, New Delhi, Hyderabad, Chennai, Gurgaon, Pune, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Chandigarh.
On the outline map of India show the following places. Ahmedabad.
Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?
Iron and steel industry is often referred to as the backbone of modem industry because almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with tools and machinery of these metals.
NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Extra Questions Long Answers Type
How can industries he classified on the basis of raw materials? Explain.
On the basis of raw materials industries can be classified in the following ways:
- Agro-based industries use plant and animal-based products as their raw materials. For example, food processing.
- Mineral-based industries use mineral ores as their raw material. For example, iron and steel industry.
- Marine-based industries use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials. For example, manufacturing of fish oil.
- Forest-based industries utilise forest produce as raw materials. For example, paper and pulp, furniture and building.
What do you understand by Industrial System? Explain with the help of an example.
Industrial System consists of inputs, processes and outputs.
(i) The inputs are raw materials, labour, cost of land, transport, power etc.
(ii) The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw materials into finished products.
(iii) The outputs are the end products and the income is earned from it.
For example, in textile industry the inputs are cotton, labour, factory building, transport cost, etc. The processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing. The output are the garments like shirt, trousers, etc.
Describe the utility of steel in our day-to-day life.
Explain how steel is the backbone of modern industry.
(i) Various modes of transport like ships, trains, trucks and autos are made of steel.
(ii) The safety pins and the needles are also made of steel.
(iii) Oil wells are drilled with steel machinery. Steel pipelines transport oil.
(iv) Minerals are mined with steel equipment.
(v) Farm machines are made up of steel.
(vi) Large buildings have steel framework.
Why was Sakchi (near Jamshedpur) chosen to set up the steel plant (TISCO)? Give reasons.
Sakchi was chosen to set-up the steel plant (TISCO) for various reasons:
(i) It was close to the iron-ore, coal and manganese deposits. TISCO gets coal from Jharia coalfields and iron-ore, limestone, dolomite and manganese from Orissa and Chhattisgarh.
(ii) The Kharkai and Subarnarekha rivers ensured sufficient water supply.
(iii) Kolkata provided a large market.
(iv) Government initiatives provided adequate capital for its later development.
Describe the locational advantages of Pittsburgh steel city in the United States of America.
Locational advantages df Pittsburgh steel city:
(i) Coal is available locally.
(ii) Iron-ore comes from the iron mines at Minnesota, about 1500 km from Pittsburgh.
(iii) The world’s best route – the famous Great Lakes waterway is available for shipping ore
(iv) Trains carry the ore from the Great Lakes to the Pittsburgh area.
(v) The Ohio, the Monogahela and Allegheny rivers provide adequate water supply.
Describe the favourable locational factors that were responsible for the development of the textile industry in Ahmedabad.
(i) Ahmedabad is situated in the “heart of a cotton-growing area. This ensures easy availability of raw material.
(ii) The humid climate is ideal for spinning and weaving.
(iii) The flat terrain is suitable for the establishment of the mills.
(iv) The densely populated states of Gujarat and Maharashtra provide both skilled and semi-skilled labour.
(v) There are well developed road and railway network.
(vi) Nearby Mumbai port facilitates import of machinery and export of cotton textiles.
Why has the textile industry developed in Osaka (Japan)?
Describe the geographical factors responsible for the location of textile industry in Osaka (Japan).
- The extensive plain around Osaka ensured the availability of land for the growth of cotton mills.
- Warm humid climate is well suited to spinning and weaving.
- The river Yodo provides sufficient water for the mills.
- Labour is easily available.
- Location of port facilitates import of raw cotton and for exporting textiles.
Explain the classification of Industries
Industries can be classified on the following basis:
(i) Raw Materials-Agro-based and mineral-based like food processing iron and steel industry.
|Ownership-Public sector||Co-operative||Joint sector|
|Owned and operated by the government SAIL BHEL||Owned and operated by producers and suppliers||Owned and operated by the state and individuals|
|Size-Large scale industries||Small scale industries|
|(i) Investment of capital is higher and technology used in superior.
(ii) Productions of automobile and heavy machinery are under large scale industries.
|(i) Small scale industries use lesser amount of capital and technology as compared to large scale industries.
(ii) Silk weaving and food processing are small scale Industries.
Explain the factors influencing the location of an industry.
Factors which affect the location of an industry are:
- Availability of raw materials
- government policies
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