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Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Questions and Answers Civics Chapter 5
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Popular Struggles and Movements NCERT Intext Questions and Answers
Are you suggesting that strike, dharna, bandh and demonstration are good for democracy?
These are the tools which empower ordinary citizens to play a role in democracy when the government ignores their needs and aspirations. By involving in these activities, they put pressure on their government to pay attention to their genuine demands. Thus, putting pressure on rulers is not an unhealthy activity in a democracy as long as everyone gets this opportunity. Such activities have deepened democracy to a great extent.
Does it mean that whichever side manages to mobilise a bigger crowd gets away with whatever it wants? Are we saying that ‘Might is Right’ in a democracy?
No, it doesn’t mean so. Democracy is not based on the proverb ‘Might is Right’. Instead, it is based on public opinion. Mere mobilising a big crowd does not mean acceptance of demands by the government. These demands must be genuine and associated with mass welfare.
Can you identify the pressure groups functioning in the news clippings given on Textbook page 63? What demand are they making?
AITUC, journalists, NGOs, CII, RWAs and Delhi’s traders are pressure groups.
AITUC is demanding pro-American tilt in foreign policy. Journalists are protesting against assault on photographer and are seeking action against the culprit. NGOs are demanding for better drugs to be supplied to the Bhopal gas victims. CII is demanding for the establishment of Special Economic Zone (SEZ) for the growth in trade sector. RWAs are demanding that their problems must be taken into consideration too.Delhi traders are demanding for the assurance of timely refund of VAT dues.
Civics Class 10 Chapter 5 NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers
In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?
Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a variety of ways
(i) They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activities by carrying out information campaigns, organising meetings, filing petitions, etc. Most of these groups try to influence the media into giving more attention to these issues.
(ii) They often organise protest activity like strikes or disrupting government programmes. Workers’organisations, employees’ associations and most of the movement groups often resort to these tactics in order to force the government to take note of their demands.
(iii) Business groups often employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements. Some persons from pressure groups or movement groups may participate in official bodies and committees that offer advice to the government. So far interest groups are concerned, they seek to exert influence on political parties.
(iv) In some instances, the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students’ organisations in India are either established by, or affiliated to one or the other major political party. Most of the leaders of such pressure groups are usually activists and leaders of the party.
(v) Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. For example, when the Assam movement led by students against the foreigners’ came to an end, it led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad.
Describe the forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties.
Relationship between pressure groups and political parties can take different forms, sometimes direct, and sometimes indirect.
Direct: Pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students’ organisations in India are either established by, or affiliated to one or the other major political parties.
Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. For example, when the Assam movement led by students against the ‘foreigners’ came to an end, it led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad.
Indirect: In most cases the relationship between parties and interest or movement groups is not so direct. They often take positions that are opposed to each other. Yet they are in dialogue and negotiations.
Movement groups have raised new issues that have been taken up by political parties. Most of the new leadership of political parties comes from interest or movement groups.
Explain how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government.
The activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government in the following ways—
(i) Pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy. Putting pressure on the rulers is a healthy activity in a democracy as long as everyone gets this opportunity.
(ii) Governments can often come under undue pressure from a small group of rich and powerful people. Public interest groups and movements perform a useful role of countering this undue influence and reminding the government of the needs and concerns of the common mass.
What is a pressure group? Give a few examples.
A pressure group is an organisation which attempts to influence government policies through protests and demonstrations. These organisations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinion come together in order to achieve a common objective. Examples: Tobacco-control movement, Narmada Bachao Andolan, Movement for Right to Information,Women’s movement, etc.
What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party?
|(i) It is an organisation formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.
|(i) It is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in government. They agree on some policies and programmes for the society with a view to promote the collective good.
|(ii) Pressure groups do not directly control or share political power.
|(ii) Political parties directly control or share political power.
|(iii) Pressure groups are not accountable to the people.
|(iii) Political parties are accountable to the people.
|(iv) Pressure groups are informal, often secretive, conceited and conspiratorial and sometimes even unrecognised entities.
|(iv) Political parties are the formal, open and recognised part of the political system competing for power.
|(v) Pressure groups often take help of marches, demonstrations, strikes, fasts, etc. to achieve their goals.
|(v) Political parties use only constitu-tional means to achieve their goals.
|(vi) Pressure groups are confined to a few people.
|(vi) Political parties involve larger number of people.
Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called ……………………… groups.
Which among the following is the special feature that distinguishes a pressure group from a political party?
(a) Parties take political stances, while pressure groups do not bother about political issues.
(b) Pressure groups are confined to a few people, while parties involve larger number of people.
(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.
(d) Pressure groups do not seek to mobilise people, while parties do.
(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.
Match List I (organisations and struggles) with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
|1. Organisations that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group
|2. Organisations that seek to promote common interest
|B. Political parties
|3. Struggles launched for the resolution of a social problem with or without an organisational structure
|C. Sectional interest groups
|4. Organisations that mobilise people with a view to win political power
|D. Public interest groups
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
|Narmada Bachao Andolan
|Asom Gana Parishad
|Single issue movement
|Fertilizer dealers’ association
Consider the following statements about pressure groups and parties.
(A) Pressure groups are the organised expression of the interests and views of specific social sections.
(B) Pressure groups take positions on political issues.
(C) All pressure groups are political parties.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) A, B and C
(b) A and B
(c) B and C
(d) A and C
(b) A and B.
Mewat is one of the most backward areas in Haryana. It used to be a part of two districts, Gurgaon and Faridabad. The people of Mewat felt that the area will get better attention if it were to become a separate district. But political parties were indifferent to this sentiment. The demand for a separate district was raised by Mewat Educational and Social Organisation and Mewat Saksharta Samiti in 1996. Later, Mewat Vikas Sabha was founded in 2000 and carried out a series of public awareness campaigns.
This forced both the major parties, Congress and the Indian National Lok Dal, to announce their support for the new district before the assembly elections held in February 2005. The new district came into existence in July 2005. In this example what is the relationship that you observe among movement, political parties and the government? Can you think of an example that shows a relationship different from one?
From the example of Mewat, we can infer that movements take up issues which are sometimes overlooked or ignored by political parties and try to influence them. For example, the Assam movement which was led by students under the umbrella of the All Assam Students’ Union or AASU. This movement was aimed against the infiltration of foreigners form Bangladesh into Assam.
When the movement came to an end, it led to the formation of Asom Gana Parishad. It contested and won the elections, forming the Government of Assam. Here, we see a political party being formed out of a pressure group.
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