Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 11 Era of One Party Dominance Questions and Answers were solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines covering each topic in chapter to ensure complete preparation.
Era of One Party Dominance NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 11
Era of One Party Dominance Questions and Answers Class 12 Political Science Chapter 11
Choose the correct option to fill in the blanks :
(a) The first general election in 1952 involved simultaneous elections to the Lok Sabha and ……………………….. (The President of India/State Assemblies/Rajya Sabha/The Prime Minister)
(b) The party that won the second longest number of Lok Sabha seats in the first elections was the ……………………….. (Praja Socialist Party/Bharatiya Jana Sangh/ Communist Party of India/Bharatiya Janata Party)
(c) One of the guiding principles of the ideology of the Swatantra Party was ……………………….. (Working class interests/Protection of Primery states/ economy free from state control/Autonomy of state within the Union.)
(a) State Assemblies
(b) Communist Party of India
(c) economy free from state control.
Match the following leaders listed in list A with the parties in list B. (Imp.)
List A – List B
(a) S.A. Dange – (i) Bharatiya Jan Sangh
(b) Shyama Prasad – (ii) Swatantra Party Mukherjee
(c) Minoo Masani – (iii) Praja Social Party
(d) Ashoka Mehta – (iv) Communist Party of India
(a) – (iv)
(b) – (i)
(c) – (ii)
(d) – (iii)
Four statements regarding one-party dominance are given below. Mark each of them as true or false.
(a) One party dominance is rooted in the absence of strong alternative political parties.
(b) One party dominance occurs because of weak public opinion.
(c) One party dominance is linked to the nation’s colonial past.
(d) One party dominance reflects the absence of democratic ideals in a country.
If Bharatiya Jana Sangh or the Communist Party of India had formed the government after the first election in which respects would the policies of the government have been different ? Specify three differences each for both the parties.
The first general election was held in 1952. If Bharatiya Jana Sangh or the Communist Party of India had formed the government at the centre, the policies of the government would have been different as follow :
1. Bharatiya Jana Sangh was against the English and this party would have replaced English with Hindi as the official language of India. But Communist Party of India would have preferred English as the official language of India because, Communist Party was popular in West Bengal, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.
2. The Jana Sangh party was not in favour of giving any concessions to religious and cultural minorities. But Communist Party was in favour of socialism.
3. The Jana Sangh was in favour of developing nuclear weapon because for the security of the country nuclear weapons were essentials. But the Communist Party of India was not in favour nuclear weapons and atomic tests.
In what sense was the Congress an ideological coalition ? Mention the various ideological currents present within the Congress.
Ideologically, the Congress took root and came to political power not as a party but as a movement for independence and reform. The Congress party was established in 1885 by Higher middle class from English speaking persons. But with both Non-cooperation movement and Civil disobedience movement the social base of the Congress party widened.
All types of people with diverse interests became the members of the Congress party. Peasants and landlords, Industrialists and workers, urban elite and village, capitalists and poor, upper caste and lower castes persons etc. all were within the Congress. Congress party was in fact, an ideological coalitions. Rajni Kothari has rightly pointed out that “The Congress represents all shades of opinion, all major interest groups in the society and indeed all other parties as well.
The Congress represented India’s diversity in terms of classes and castes, religions and languages and various interests. Maximum opposition political parties are the dissenting elites of the Congress party, who shared two common social and intellectual background as of the Congressmen.”
Did the prevalence of a ‘One party dominant system’ affect adversely the democratic nature of Indian politics ?
In India multi-party system exists. Several political parties participate in elections in India. But Indian National Congress dominated at the centre as well as the states before 1967. The prevalence of ‘one party dominant system’ has affected adversely the democratic nature of Indian politics.
In fact, dominance of single party is opposed to democracy as other political parties cannot flourish. Due to lack of organised opposition, the Congress party never fulfilled the promises made to the people.
Congress remained in power for a long period and hence no other party got a chance to rule. Its administration too has become virtually inefficient leading to widespread corruptions. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru himself accepted the fact that ‘The Congress has developed into monolithic organisations making it virtually impossible for the growth of a sound party system in the country”. According to R.A. Gopalaswami, “The party system which has emerged in our country is not only incompatiable with the particular democratic institutions we have adopted but constitutes a clear danger to the survival of democracy of India.”
Bring out three differences each between Socialist Parties and the Communist Party and between Bharatiya Jan Sangh and Swatantra Party.
Differences between Socialist Parties and Communist Party:
- The Socialists believed in the ideology of democratic socialism whereas Communist Party worked mainly within the fold of the Congress party.
- The Socialists believed in peaceful Constitutional methods, while Communist party believed in peaceful and violent methods.
- The socialists criticised the Congress for favouring capitalists and landlords and ignoring the working class and farmers. The Communist party believed in tfye welfare of workers and peasants.
Differences Between Bharatiya Jan Sangh and Swatantra Party:
1. Bharatiya Jan Sangh believed in the ideology of ‘one country, one nation, one culture and one national ideal’. On the other hand, the Swatantra Party believed in equality of opportunity for all people without distinction of religion, caste, race etc.
2. Bharatiya Jan Sangh stands for the nationalisation of basic and defence industries, but it does not favour the policy of taking more and more industries under state ownership and control because it believes that this tendency is harmful both for democracy and economic development. Swatantra Party stands for the principle of maximum freedom for the Individual and minimum interference by the state.
3. Jan Sangh favoured to follow the policy of non-alignment “with the two power blocs as also of non-involvement in international affairs not directly affecting India. Swatantra Party was critical of the policy of non¬alignment and advocated close ties with U.S.A
What would you consider as the main differences between Mexico and India under one party domination ?
In India Indian National Congress dominates Indian Politics upto 1967. Besides India, there were certain other countries where one party dominated. There are some countries like China, Cuba, north Korea, etc. where only one party is allowed under the Constitution. Few years ago in Mexico one party dominated like South Korea and Taiwan.
In India multi-party system exists. Many political parties contested elections and elections were held free and fair. Congress party managed to win election after elections. Congress dominance was on the support of the masses. But in Mexico there was no democratic system in reality.
Make a Political map of India (with state outlines) and mark :
(a) two states where Congress was in power at some point during 1952-67.
(b) two states where the Congress remained in power through this period.
(a) two states where Congress was not in power at some point during 1957-67 — Jammu- Kashmir and Kerla.
(b) two states where the Congress remained in power through this period — Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.
Read the following passage and answer the question below :
“Patel, the organisational man of the Congress, wanted to purge the Congress of other political groups and sought to make of it a cohesive and disciplined political party. He sought to take the Congress away from its all-embracing character and turn it into a close knit party of disciplined cadres.
Being a ‘realist’ he looked more for discipline than for comprehension. While Gandhi took to romantic a view of ‘Carrying on the movement.’ Patel’s ideas of transforming the Congress into strictly political party with a single ideology and tight discipline showed an equal lack of understanding of the eclectic role that the Congress, as a government, was to be called upon to perform in the decades to follow Rajni Kothari.
(a) Why does the author think that Congress should not have been a cohesive and disciplined party ?
(b) Give some examples of the eclectic role of the Congress party in the early years.
(c) Why does the author say that Gandhi’s views about Congress future was romantic ?
(a) Organiser of the Congress party wanted to purge the Congress of other political groups and sought to make it a cohesive and disciplined political party. He wanted that those members of the Congress party who did not believe in the ideology of the congress should be out from the party. Patel was determined to make Congress a party of disciplined cadre.
(b) In the beginning Congress party was dominated by higher middle class; upper caste and educated class. It was not the party of the masses. Urban elite played a key role in Congress. Bal Gangadhar Tilak played an important role in making Congress a party of middle class. With Home Rule Movement and Non-cooperation Movement social base of the Congress party widened.
(c) Patel was a realist. He preferred discipline within the party rather comprehension. While Mahatma Gandhi took romantic a view of carrying on the movement.