Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 14 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System Questions and Answers were solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines covering each topic in chapter to ensure complete preparation.
Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 14
Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System Questions and Answers Class 12 Political Science Chapter 14
Which of these statements about the 1967 elections is/are correct ?
(а) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly election in many states.
(b) Congress lost both Lok Sabha and As-sembly elections.
(c) Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the support of some other parties.
(d) Congress retained power at the Centre with an increased majority.
Match the following : Imp.
(a) Syndicate – An elected representative leaving the party on whose ticket he has been elected.
(b) Defection – A catchy phrase that attracts public attention.
(c) Slogan – Parties with different ideological position coming together to oppose Congress and its policies.
(d) Anti-Congressism – A group of powerful and influential leaders within the Congress.
(a) – (IV), (b) – (I), (c)-(II), (d)-(III).
Whom would you identify with the fol-lowing slogans/phrases.
(а) Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan.
(b) Indira Hatao.
(c) Garibi Hatao.
(a) Lai Bahadur Shastri.
(b) The Grand Alliance.
(c) Sint. Indira Gandhi.
Which of the following statements about the Grand Alliance of 1971 is correct ?
The Grand Alliance
(a) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.
(b) had a clean political and ideological programme.
(c) was formed by all non-Congress parties.
(a) was formed by non-Communist, non-Congress parties.
How should a political party resolve its internal differences ? Here are some sugges¬tions. Think of each and list out their advantages and shortcomings.
(a) Follow the footsteps of the party president.
(b) Listen to the majority group
(c) Secret ballot voting on every issue.
(d) Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party.
(a) If we follow the footsteps of the party president, the party become disciplined and strong.
(b) It strengthen democratic system with the party.
(c) Secret ballot voting is the best to decide issues within the party.
(d) When senior and experienced leaders of the party are consulted, it gives us good path and proper guidance.
(a) If party president is not followed, it leads to indispline in the party and party becomes weak.
(b) If majority view is not listened properly, it is against the democratic spirit. Moreover, majority will not express its opinion freely.
(c) When there is secret ballot on every issue then there is danger of cross voting.
(d) If senior and experienced leaders of the party are not consulted, the party will lost its right and just path of goodness.
State which of these were reasons for the defeat of the Congress in 1967. Give reasons for your answer.
(а) The absence of a Charistmatic leader in the Congress Party.
(b) Split within the Congress party.
(c) Increased mobilisation of regional, ethnic and communal groups.
(d) Increasing unity among Non-congress parties.
(e) Internal differences within the Congress Party.
(a) The absence of a charismatic leader in the Congress party was one main reason for the defeat of the Congress Party in 1967. During the first three general elections Congress was led by great leader Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru. But new prime minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi was in office for less than a year.
(b) Groupism and factionalism within the Congress Party was mainly responsible for the defeat of the Congress Party.
(c) Increased mobilisation of regional, ethnic and communal groups were also responsible to some extent for the defeat of the Congress Party in 1967.
(d) Increasing unity among non-Congress parties was another important reason for the defeat of the Congress Party.
(e) Internal differences within the Congress Party is very important factor for the defeat of the Congress Party in fourth general election, 1967.
What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s government in the early 1970s ?
After the death of Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri, Smt. Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister of India in 1966. In the beginning Smt. Indira Gandhi was not very strong and popular Prime Minister. But with the passage of time, she became very popular. Following factors were responsible for the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government is the early 1970s :
1. Charismatic Personality. Smt. Indira Gandhi became very popular due to her charismatic personality. Like Jawaharlal Nehru, Smt. Indira Gandhi possessed an unparalled personality. According to Frank Morris, “Mrs. Gandhi’s was not only the undisputed leader of the Congress party, but it was her party and she could dominate it in a way which none else had done.
She was free to choose her colleagues who were her agents or assistants and in her presence tremble and obey.” In the elections to the Fourth Lok Sabha, held in 1971, people voted for the Congress on account of the fact that it was being led by Mrs. Indira Gandhi.
2. Socialistic Policies of Indira Gandhi’s Government. Socialist policies of Indira Gandhi’s Government made her very popular among the masses. Mrs. Indira Gandhi launched a series of initiatives to give the Government policy a left orientation.
Smt. Indira Gandhi pursued a vigorous policy in 1969 of land reform and placed a ceiling on personal income, private property and corporate profits. In 1969, she ordered the nationalisation of India’s fourteen largest banks.
It was in fact a very bold step which made her very popular among the people. Mrs. Indira Gandhi supported the demand that the Government should abolish privy purses. But Morarji Desai called this move morally wrong and amounting to a breach of faith with the princes. However, ultimately privy purses were abolished.
3. Garibi Hatao. The fifth general elections to the Lok Sabha were held in February 1971. Mrs. Indira Gandhi gave a very popular slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’. By this slogan she got the support of backward classes, adivasis, unemployed youths, minorities, women and Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes.
4. Strong Hold of Party. Smt. Indira Gandhi had a strong hold cn her party.
5. Polarisation of Votes in 1971. The polarisation of votes in 1971s fifth general election went in the favour of Smt. Indira Gandhi.
6. Weak Opposition. Another reason of popularity of Indira Gandhi was that the opposition was weak.
What does the term ‘Syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress Party of the sixties ? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party ?
In the Indian National Congress there was a group of leaders which was known as ‘Syndicate’. This Syndicate control the organisation of the Congress party. This group was led by K. Kawraj, former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and then the President of the Congress Party. Syndicate include powerful state leader like N. Sanjiva Reddy of Andhra Pradesh, S.K. Patil of Bombay, Atulya Ghosh of West Bengal and S. Nigalingappa of Mysore.
Role of the Syndicate in the Congress Party. After the death of Pt. Jawhar Lai Nehru ‘Syndicate’ played a very important role in the Congress party. Mr. Lai Bahadur Shashtri was elected leader of the Congress due to the support of the syndicate. After the sudden death of Mr. Lai Bahadur Shastri Mrs.
Indira Gandhi was elected the leader of the Congress Parliamentary Party and Mr. Morarji Desai was defeated. Mrs. Indira Gandhi became the leader of the Congress Party because she was whole heartedly supported by the syndicate.
The Syndicate’ had played an important role in formation of Mrs. Gandhi’s first Council of Ministers. Leader of the Syndicate expected Mrs. Indira Gandhi to follow their advice. But Mrs. Indira Gandhi gradually started asserting her position within the government and the party. Ultimately she sidelined the Syndicate.
Due to differences between the Syndicate and Indira Gandhi there was split in the Congress Party in 1969. Leader of the Syndicate and those owing allegiance to then came to be known as Congress (O). Those owing allegiance to Smt. Gandhi was known as Congress (R). In the 1971 elections almost all the leaders of the Syndicate i.e. Congress (O) were defeated and Indira Congress won a two- third majority in the Lok-Sabha.
Discuss the major issue which led to the formal split of the Congress Party in 1969.
Examine three reasons responsible for the split in the Congress Party during 1969. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Describe any three important events : . that led to the split in the congress : party in 1969. (C.B.S.E. 2019) S
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru have a hold on the Congress Party that kept the party united with his charismatic leadership and magnatic personality. But his death left a vacuum in the party which was never filled. Significantly, the most notorious and long-lasting of central faction, the so-called syndicate came into being during his last illness.
An alliance of non-Hindi state leaders, its original purpose to prevent election of Morarji Desai to the party presidency. Although it played a useful role in securing the unopposed elec-tion of Lai Bahadur Shastri as prime minister, the virtually unconcealed factionalism, it introduced into the central council of minister had wrought havoc by the time of the 1967 elections. A rival faction, which supporte.
Morarji Desai for the Prime Ministership as, against Mrs. Gandhi was less powerful and uniter, but hardly less damaging. Thus even before the election of 1967, the stage was set for the subsequent party split.
The rout of the Congress in 1967 general election in which congress emerged in a low morale catalyed the process of open confession of factionalism. The Syndicate member began to ally themselves with Swatantra, Jan Sangh and S.S.P.
which later on emerged as grand Alliance. The grand Alliance political manifested itself openly at the time of election of the President in 1969. In the Congress Parliamentary Board, Mrs. Indira Gandhi proposed to name of Jagjiwan Ram for presidenship which was opposed by the Syndicate group.
Instead Mr. Morarji Desai proposed the name of Sanjiva Reddy who was selected. She disapproved of the choice and left the meeting in anger saying “You will have to bear the consequence of this.” In opposition to the official condidate of the Congress, V.V. Giri Independent candidate was elected President of India due to Mrs. Indira Gandhi. This led to the split in the Congress party.
Read the passage and answer the questions below :
Indira Gandhi changed the Congress into highly centralised and undemocratic party organisation, from the earlier federal, democratic and ideological formation that Nehru had led But this could not have happened had not Indira Gandhi changed the entire nature of politics. This new populist politics turned political ideology into a more electoral discourse, use of various slogans not meant to be translated into governmental policies During its electoral victories in early 1970s, amidst the celebration, the Congress party as a political organisation died Sudipta Kaviraj.
(а) What according to the author is the difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi ?
(b) Why does the author say that the Congress party died in the seventies ?
(c) In what way did the change in the Congress party affect other political parties also ?
(a) Pt. Jawaharlal adopted a federal, democratic and ideological strategies within a Congress as well as in the political system of the country. But Smt. Indira Gandhi changed the entire nature of politics. She changed the Congress into highly centralised and undemocratic party organisation. Smt. Indira Gandhi adopted ‘populist politics’.
(b) The authors has rightly said that the Congress party died in the seventies because Congress party has lost its ideology and principles. Instead of ideology, Smt. Indira Gandhi gave more attention to the populist politics. Smt. Indira Gandhi restored the Congress system by changing the nature of the Congress system itself.
(c) Various changes in the Congress party also affected other political parties. Many political parties have no existence when various important changes were made in the Congress party.