Detailed, Step-by-Step NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 15 The Crisis of Democratic Order Questions and Answers were solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines covering each topic in chapter to ensure complete preparation.
The Crisis of Democratic Order NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 15
The Crisis of Democratic Order Questions and Answers Class 12 Political Science Chapter 15
State whether the following statements regarding the Emergency are correct or incorrect.
(а) It was declared in 1975 by Indira Gandhi.
(b) It led to the suspension of all fundamental rights.
(c) It was proclaimed due to the deteriorating economic conditions.
(d) Many opposition leaders were arrested during the emergency.
(e) CPI supported the proclamation of the emergency.
Find the odd one put in the context of proclamation of emergency.
(a) The call for Total Revolution.
(b) The Railway strike of 1974.
(c) The Naxalite Movement.
(d) The Allahabad High Court Verdict.
(e) The findings of the Shah Commission Report.
(a), (b) and (c).
Match the following : (Imp.)
(a) Total Revolution – (I) Indira Gandhi
(b) Garibi Hatao – (II) Jayaprakash Narayan
(c) Students’ Protest – (III) Bihar Movement
(d) Railway Strike – (IV) George Fernandes
(a) – (II), (b) – (I), (c) – (III), (d) – (IV).
What were the reasons which led to the mid-term elections in 1980 ?
In 1980 mid-term elections were held due to following reasons :
1. Janata Party assumed office in March, 1977 while it was formally born on 1st May, 1977. The Janata party was expected to solve almost all the problems that the Congress rule created or could not solve. But Janata Party failed to solve political, social and economic problems of the people. The Janata party government could do nothing for the common man. Within 28 months in office, the Janata Party government could give no practicable scheme for bringing an end to unemployment.
2. Within a few months of its coming into power, the Janata party showed signs of its breakdown. Smt. Indira Gandhi predicted that the Janata Party will dissolve under the strain of its own infighting and this is what has come out true. The various constituent parties of the Janata Party always continued to work on the basis of factionalism.
3. Due to split within Janata Party Prime Minister Mr. Desai lost its majority in the Lok Sabha and he resigned.
4. Ch. Charan Singh formed the government with the support of the Congress party. But Congress Party later withdrew the support and there was downfall of Ch. Charan Singh government in 1979.
The Shah Commission was appointed in 1977 by the Janata Party Government. Why was it appointed and what were its findings ?
In March 1977 Janata Party Government was formed at the Centre. In May 1977, the Janata Party Government appointed a Commission of inquiry headed by Justice J.C. Shah, retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India, to inquire, “into several aspects of allegations of abuse of authority, excesses and malpractices committed and action taken in the wake of the emergency proclaimed on the 25 June, 1975.” The Commission examined many witnesses.
Even Smt. Indira Gandhi was summoned before the Commission, but she refused to answer any question. Shah commission submitted its observation and rec-ommendation in two Interim reports and third and final report. Shah Commission estimated that nearly one lakh eleven thousand people were arrested under preventive detention laws. Freedom of the Press was crushed and many restrictions were imposed on mass media. The Janata government accepted the report of the Shah Commission and it was tabled before both the Houses of Parliament.
What reasons did the Government give for declaring a National Emergency in 1975?
Besides powers in normal times, the President of India has emergency powers as well. According to Article 352, if the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby the security of India or any part of India is threatened by war, external aggression or armed rebellion, he may proclaim a state of emergency.
Ever since the operation of the constitution, national emergency has been declared three times. Third time internal emergency was declared on the night of 25 June, 1975 and this emergency was removed on 21st March, 1977. Emergency was justified by the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi when she gave a speech in the Lok Sabha on July 22, 1975 and said, “The action is totally within our Constitutional framework and it was undertaken in order not to destroy the Constitution but to preserve the Constitution, to preserve and safeguard our democracy.”
National emergency was declared due to the following reasons or circumstances :
1. Economic Crisis. War took place between India and Pakistan in Dec. 1971 and Pakistan was defeated in the war. But this war had put a heavy strain on India’s economy. More than eight million people crossed over the East Pakistan border into India. Oil prices increased in the international market and this led to an all-round increase in the prices of other commodities.
In 1974, prices increased about 30 percent. The failure of monsoons in 1972-73 led to the downfall in agricultural production. Poverty and unemployment was very high. Hardships of masses increased and there was general atmosphere of dissatisfaction among the masses.
2. Railway Employees’ strike, Students unrest in Gujarat, etc. In April, 1974 there was a high strike of Railway employees which affected Indian Economy.
3. Gujarat movement. In January 1974, students in Gurjarat started an agitation against 20% hike in hostel food in the I.D. College of Engineering, but very soon it became a big movement known as Nav Nirman Movement. The movement was supported by all the opposition parties and demanded the resignation of the Chief Minister of Gujarat. President’s rule was imposed in Gujarat and ultimately Assembly elections were held in June 1975. The Congress was defeated in this election.
4. Bihar movement was started by students against the misrule, unemployment, rising prices, corruption, etc. Later on, this movement was led by great socialist leader Jayaprakash Narayan. The movement of Jayaprakash Narayan is also known as ‘Total Revolution’. Jayaprakash Narayan in a letter to people of Bihar, 1975 said, “This movement (Total Revolution) aims at bringing about a revolutionary change in all aspects of the life of both society and individual.
The objective of this movement is not merely to change the government, but also to change the society and the individual. That is why I have called it a total revolution In order to achieve this we shall have to carry on a sturggle for a long time, and at the same time carry on constructive and creative activities. Thus, double process of struggle and construction is a necessity in order to achieve total revolution.” Jayaprakash Narayan also discussed the economic and social problems of backward classes and Tribal people.
4. Allahabad High Court Judgement invalidating Smt. Indira Gandhi’s 1971 Election. On 12 June, 1975, Justice Jagmohan Lai Sinha of the Allahabad High Court passed a judgement declaring Indira Gandhi’s election to the Lok Sabha, invalid and made her ineligible to occupy her seat for six years.
On June 24, the Supreme Court vocational Judge Justice Krishna Iyer granted a stay that allowed Mrs. Indira Gandhi to function as the Prime Minister on the condition that she should not draw a salary and speak or vote in Parliament until the case was decided. In fact, this was the most important reason which led to the declaration of Emergency in India.
5. Demonstration in Delhi’s Ramlila Ground by All Opposition Parties. The opposition parties led by Jayaprakash Narayan demanded the resignation of Mrs. Indira Gandhi. On 25 June 1975, the opposition parties organised a massive demonstration at Delhi’s Ramlila Ground. Jayaprakash Narayan declared a nationwide Satyagraha for her resignation and asked the army, the police and government employees not to obey “illegal and immoral orders” of the government.
All these factors were responsible for declaring Internal Emergency on the night of 25 June, 1975. The Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi recommended the imposition of Emergency to President Fakhruddin Ah Ahmed. The President issued the proclamation immediately. Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi informed the Cabinet at a special meeting at 6 a.m. on 26 June, 1975.
The 1977 elections for the first time saw the opposition coming into : : power at the Centre. What would you onsider as the reasons for this development?
“The 1977 elections for the first time saw the opposition coming to power at the centre.” Examine any six reasons for this change. (Imp.) (C.B.S.E. 2012 Delhi)
Mention any six factors responsible for the defeat of the Congress party after the 1977 elections.(C.B.S.E. 2013)
Assess any three happenings which were responsible for the downfall of the Congress Party in 1977 election. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
In the election of 1977, both to the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies, the Congress party lost its dominance. Not only it lost dominance, it got a erasing defeat at the hands of the newly emerged Janata Party. The following factors were responsible for the defeat of the Congress or the victory of the Janata Party in the 1977 election.
1. Imposition of Internal Emergency. For the first time in the history of free India, internal emergency was imposed by Mrs. Indira Gandhi. Immediately after the imposition of emergency, the leaders of all the opposition parties including J.P. Narayan were thrown behind the bars. The real motive behind the declaration of emergency was personal. Mrs. Indira Gandhi wants to stick to the “Kursi” of the Prime Minister.
2. Excess during Emergency. Basic liberties, of the people were suppressed. No individual or party could utter word against the imposition of emergency or the excess committed by the government.
3. Sanjay Gandhi as the Extra Constitutional Centre of Power. During emergency Sanjay Gandhi appeared as the extra constitutional centre of power. It was he who controlled the administration of India.
4. Imposition of Black Acts like MISA. During emergency, various black acts were passed by the Indira government. The people suspected of anything against the government could be corrested and thrown behind the bars without any trial under the MISA. The life, liberty, respect and property of no person was considered safe.
5. Constitutional Amendments. Indira government lowered the position of the Judiciary through the 42nd amendment. In fact, Judiciary was subordinated to the executive. The scope of Judicial review was limited to a great extent.
6. Compulsory Sterilization. At the instance of Sanjay Gandhi, various states particularly Haryana resorted to compulsory sterilization. Buses were stopped and sent to Hospital for sterilization of the passengers.
7. Rising Prices. The condition of the people of India had become very pitiable due to the continuous rise in prices. People were very sore with the Congress government over this issue.
8. Abolition of Bonus. The Congress government abolished bonus to the employees of public sector during emergency. As such they were very sore with the Congress government.
9. Availability of Alternate leadership. J.P. Narayan emerged as a leader of Indian unrest. He was the most respected leader after Nehru. People came to realise that they can fall back on J.P. Narayan after dislodging the Congress from power. Conclusion. We can conclude that emerency and the measures adopted during emergency by the Congress government were responsible for the defeat of the Congress party in 1977’s election.
Discuss the effects of Emergency on the following aspects of our polity.
Evaluate any three consequences of Emergency of 1975. (C.B.S.E. 2014) )
(i) Effects on civil liberty for citizens.
(ii) Impact on relationship between the Executive and Judiciary.
(iii) Functioning of Mass Media.
(iv) Working of the Police and Bureaucracy.
1. Effect on Civil Liberties for Citizen.
Fundamental Rights given under Article 19 (Six free-doms) were automatically suspended throughout the country. The suspension of Art. 19 continues until the proclamation of emergency ends. But according to 44th Amendment the liberties given in Art. 19 will become suspended only in case of a proclamation of emergency issued on the ground of war or external aggressive and not in case of a proclamation of emergency issued on the ground of armed rebellion. In June, 1975 during emergency protests and strikes and public agitations were disallowed. The government made extensive use of preventive detection.
2. Impact on Relationship between the Executive and Judiciary. The President by order can also suspend the right to move the court to enforce any other Fundamental Rights. All proceedings pending in any court for the enforcement of the rights so men¬tioned may remain suspended for the period during which proclamation is in force or for such short period as may be specified in the order. But according to 44th Amendment, the enforcement of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 cannot be suspended.
3. Functioning of Mass Media. During emergency the government has a power to suspend the normal functioning of Mass Media. In 1975 during emergency the government suspended the Freedom of the Press. Newspapers were asked to get prior approval for all material to be published. Press censorship was enforced. Magazines like the Seminar and the Mainstream were close down rather than submitting to censorship. Many journalists were arrested for writing against the emergency.
4. Working of Police and Bureaucracy. During emergency police and bureaucracy are totally committed to the executive. Their prime duty is to follow the order of the executive.
In what way did the imposition of Emergency affect the party system in India ? Elaborate your answer with examples.
What was the impact of Imposition of National Emergency (1975) on party system in India? (C.B.S.E. Sample Paper 2018)
On the night of 25 June, 1975 President of India declared emergency on the advice of Prime
Minister Indira Gandhi, Emergency affected the working of political parties in many ways :
1. Almost all the leaders of opposition parties were arrested under the Maintenance of Internal Security Act, 1971 (MISA). This affected the working of political parties. Agitation, strikes, demonstration, etc. were not allowed. All liberties given under Article 19 were suspended. Due to censorship on the freedom of Press and other restrictions democratic functioning of political parties were badly affected. The public opinion was against the Congress Government. Jaya Prakash Narayan became a symbol of democratic values.
2. Moreover, the imposition of emergency and their subsequent intenment finally made political leaders to realize that they will simply rot if they do not stand united against the authoritarian style of Indira Gandhi. Hence the leaders of various parties that came in contact with one another in jails resolved to form one party i.e. Janata Party. That is why it is held that the Janata Party was born in jail.
3. The formation of Janata Party ensured that Non-Congress votes would not be divided. The 1977 election proved referendum on emergency experiences and masses rejected the Congress Party.
Read the passage and answer the questions below :
Indian democracy was never so close to a two-party system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat, the Indian National Congress split into ………………. two groups The Janata Party also went
through major convulsions ……………. David Butler, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy Roy
(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?
(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are authors describing this period as close to a two-party system ?
(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata parties ?
(a) Elections were held in March 1977, Party system in India look like a two party system in 1977’s elections. Almost all the major opposition parties or non-Congress parties formed Janata Party. For the first time in India a two-party system was in existence from 1977 to 1979.
(b) In 1977 elections more than two parties existed i. e. Janata Party, Congress (I), Communist Party of India, Communist Party (Marxist). There were many regional Parties i.e. Akali Dal, National Conference, DMK etc. However, the Authors had described this period as close to a two-party system because there were only two main parties the Janata Party and the Congress Party together accounted for over 50 percent of votes and seats.
(c) Split in the Congress. 1st January, 1978 is a day of split in Indian National Congress. The Congress party faced a crushing defeat in the General Election of March, 1977, Brahmanand Reddy was elected party president with the approval of Mrs. Gandhi. But there were difference between Reddy and Mrs. Gandhi on Presidential Candidate, Ultimately supporters of Mrs. Gandhi clearly demanded that she should be made the party president.
The problem in Karnataka created all the more tensions between two groups. Mrs. Gandhi resigned from the party executive. Mrs. Dev Raj Urs, a devoted supporter of Mrs. Gandhi was suspended by the party High Command on 26th December, 1977. The seven members of the party executive resigned as a protest against the decision of the Congress High Command.
Mrs. Gandhi’s supporters decided to hold the National Conference of the Congress workers on 1st and 2nd January 1978. Congress President Mr. Reddy and S.B. Chavan called this conference anti-party and directed the party members to boycot it. The National Conference was inaugurated by Mir Kasim and Mrs. Gandhi presided over it.
A resolution moved by Mr. Kamalapati Tripathi described the convention as truly representative of the Indian National Congress for a “Majority of members of the A.I.C.C. were present.” When Syed Mir Kasim put the resolution to votes delegates raised their hands to support and shouted slogans of ‘Desh Ki Neta : Indira Gandhi and ‘Indira Gandhi Jindabad.”
Thus the party faced split for the second time at the Vithal Bhai Patel Bhavan where it was divided in 1969. The executive of the Congress Party called its meeting on 3rd January and expelled Mrs. Gandhi and her supporters from the party. The Election Commission recognised the Congress (I) and alloted ‘Hand’ its election symbol.
Split in Janata Party. In April, 1980 the Janata Party broke into three separate groups i.e. the Lok Dal, the Bharatiya Janata Party and Janata Party. The following factors were responsible for the split of Janata Party :
1. The election manifesto of Janata Party stated that the party was not a Union of different parties but a national organisation. But this party never acted in this capacity. The different constituents of the party attached more importance to their original parties instead of thinking in terms of the party as a whole.
2. One important reason for the break-up of the Janata Party was the absence of a spirit of compromise.
3. The over-ambitious attitude of some individuals, temperamental incompatibilities and the party’s failure to appeal to the people responsible for the split in the Janata Party.
4. Lack of Towering Personality. There was no great personality within the Janata Party, as we had under the Congress.
5. Personal Feuding Among the Leaders. The party’s organisational weakness was compounded by personal ‘feuds, among its top three leaders (Morarji Desai, Charan Singh and Jagjiwan Ram).
6. Issue of Dual Membership. The most crucial issue that brought the downfall of the Janata government in 1979 was the dual membership of the erstwhile Jan Sangh members in the Janata Party who also had affiliations with the RSS. In March 1980, the Janata Parliamentary Board decided that “no legislator or office bearer of the Janata Party shall participate in the day-to-day activities of the R.S.S.”
But the leaders of the erstwhile Jana Sangh Mr. Atal Behari Vajpayee, Mr. L.K. Adwani etc. expressed their strong reservation on it and recorded their dissent. Consequently, the former Jana Sangh elements, along with a few others, broke away from the Janta and formed a new party-the Bharatiya Janata Party.