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Colonialism and the City Class 8 Questions and Answers History Chapter 6
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History Class 8 Chapter 6 NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers
State whether true or false.
(a) In the Western world, modern cities grew with industrialisation.
(b) Surat and Machlipatnam developed in the nineteenth century.
(c) In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities. ‘
(d) After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years.
(e) More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi.
Fill in the blanks.
(а) The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the ………………
(b) The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were ………………
(c) The British saw overcrowded spaces as ……………….
(d) In 1888 an extension scheme called the was devised……………….
(a) Central dome.
(b) Edward Lutyens, Herbert Baker
(d) Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme
Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.
The three differences in city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were:
(i) Shahjahanabad was crowded and was constructed as a walled city with gates adjoining a fort- palace complex, with the River Jamuna flowing nearby it. On the other hand Delhi was unwalled, constructed on Raisina Hill, situated on the south of Shahjahanabad or Old Delhi.
(ii) Shahjahanabad had mazes of narrrow and winding lanes and bylanes and quiet cul-de-sacs but New Delhi has broad and straight streets.
(iii) Shahjahanabad was consisted of crowded and congested mohallas but Delhi had sprawling mansions set in the middle of large compounds.
Who lived in the “white” areas in cities such as Madras?
In colonial cities such as Madras, Bombay and Calcutta, the living spaces of Indians and the British were sharply separated. Indians lived in the “black” areas, while the British lived in well-laid out “White” areas.
What is meant by De-urbanisation?
De-urbanisation is the process in which a city declines and more and more people begin to live in villages or rural areas.
Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?
During the Revolt of 1857, the British understood the symbolic importance of Delhi for the Indians. Hence, they chosen to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital.
How did the old city of Delhi change under British rule?
The old city of Delhi was as a walled city with 14 gates, adjoining a fort-palace complex with the river Jamuna flowing near it. The city was characterised by mosques, havelis, crowded mohallas, narrow and winding lanes and by-lanes and water channels. The British gained control of Delhi in 1803. Before the Revolt of 1857, the British adjusted themselves to the Mughal culture of the old city by living in the walled city, enjoying Urdu/Persian culture and poetry and participating in local festivals. The Delhi College was established in 1792, which led to a great intellectual flowering in the sciences as well as the humanities.
However, after the revolt, they embarked on a mission to rid the city of its Mughal past. They razed several palaces, closed down gardens and built barracks for troops in their place. For security reasons, the area around the Red Fort was completely cleared of gardens, pavilions and mosques. Mosques in particular were either destroyed or put to other uses.
No worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years. One third of the city was demolished, and its canals were filled up. In the 1870’s the western walls of Shahjahanabad were broken to establish the railway and to allow the city to expand beyond the walls.
The sprawling Civil Lines area came up in the north of the city. This was the place where the British began living. The Delhi College was turned into a school, and shut down in 1877. The British constructed a new city known as New Delhi, South of the old city. Built as a complete contrast to the old city, New Delhi became the centre of power. The old city, meanwhile was pushed into neglect.
How did the Partition affect life in Delhi?
In 1947, due to the Partition, there was massive transfer of population on both sides of the new border. As a result, the population of Delhi swelled (nearly 500,000 people were added to Delhi’s population). Delhi became a city of refugees with people living in camps, schools, military barracks and gardens. The riots accompanying the partition led to the killing of thousands of people, and the looting and burning of their houses. Over two-third of the Delhi Muslims migrated and almost 44,000 homes were abandoned.
Their places were taken over by Sikh and Hindu refugees from Pakistan. These refugees were mostly rural landlords, lawyers, teachers, traders and shopkeepers. After partition, their lives changed as they took up new jobs as hawkers, vendors, carpenters and iron smiths. The influx of Sikh and Hindu refu¬gee population and the outflow of the Muslim population changed the social environment of Delhi. An urban culture largely based on Urdu was overshadowed by new tastes and sensibilities, in food, dress and the arts.
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