# NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development

Development Class 10 Questions and Answers Provided helps you to answer complex Questions too easily. You can use them while preparing for board exams and all of them are given by subject experts. Reading NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development familiarizes you with the kind of questions appearing in the board exams. Students are advised to read these solutions on a regular basis to score well.

## Development Class 10 Questions and Answers Economics Chapter 1

Make your learning experience enjoyable by preparing from the quick links available on this page. Use the Class 10 SST Economics Chapter 1 NCERT Solutions and get to know different concepts involved. All the Solutions are covered as per the latest syllabus guidelines. Knowing the NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Questions and Answers helps students to attempt the exam with confidence.

### Development NCERT Intext Questions and Answers

Let’s Work These Out (NCERT Textbook page 6)

Question 1.
Why do different persons have different notions of development? Which of the following explanations is more important and why?
(a) Because people are different.
(b) Because life situations of persons are different.
Explanation (b) is more important than explanation
(a) because life situations affect the way an individual thinks about development. What may be development for one person may not be development for the other. It all depends on the situations in which he lives.

Question 2.
(a) People have different developmental goals.
(b) People have conflicting developmental goals.
No, the above two statements do not mean the same.
(a) When we say that people have different developmental goals it means they seek different things. They seek things that are most important for them, i.e. that which can fulfil their aspirations or desires.

(b) At times, two persons may seek things which are conflicting. For example, a girl expects as much freedom and opportunity as her brother, and that he also shares in the household work. Her brother may not like this.

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Question 3.
Give some examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives.

• Freedom
• Sense of security
• Equal treatment
• Respect of others
• Good working atmosphere
• Protection from infectious diseases.

If one gets a job in a far off place, before accepting it one would try to consider many factors, apart from income such as facilities for one’s family, working atmosphere or opportunity to learn, etc.

Question 4.
Explain some of the important ideas of the above section in your own words.
For self-attempt.

Let’s Work These Out (NCERT Textbook page 7)

Discuss the following situations:

Question 1.
Look at the picture on the right given on Textbook Page 7. What should be the developmental goals for such an area?
From the picture, it seems that it is in the outskirt of the town. There must be the connectivity of roads, availability of water, electricity, schools, market places and a police check post for the safety of public.

Question 2.
A vessel dumped 500 tonnes of liquid toxic wastes into open-air dumps in a city and in the surrounding sea. This happened in a city called Abidjan in Ivory Coast, a country in Africa. The fumes from the highly toxic waste caused nausea, skin rashes, fainting, diarrhoea, etc. After a month seven, persons were dead, twenty in hospital and twenty six thousand treated for symptoms of poisoning. A multinational company dealing in petroleum and metals had contracted a local company of the Ivory Coast to dispose the toxic waste from its ship.
(i) Who are the people who benefitted and who did not?
(ii) What should be the developmental goal for this country?
(i) Those who were in position to avail good facilities got benefitted and the people of lower income group did not get much benefit.
(ii) The developmental goal for this country should be health facilities, good environment, establish¬ment of factories for generating employment and the facilities of home for the homeless.

Question 3.
What can be some of the developmental goals for your village, town or locality?
The developmental goals for village, town or locality should be:

• Good transportation system
• Sanitation facilities
• Pure and safe drinking water
• Schools
• Hospitals, etc.

Let’s Work These Out (NCERT Textbook page 9)

Question 1.
Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations.
An average is used for comparing

• income of people of a country
• health of the students of a class
• talent of the students of a class.

Question 2.
Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain.
Income i.e. money enables us to buy things of our needs including the basic necessities of life. We can fulfil our desires and be able to do what we wish for only with the help of our income. More income means more of all things that we need. Whatever we like and should have, we will be able to get with greater income. If the average income of a country is on a higher side, it will definitely stand ahead on development index. Hence, average income can be an important criterion for development.

Question 3.
Besides size of per capita income, what other property of income is important in comparing two or more societies?
Besides size of per capita income, other important property of income is equality in people’s purchasing power. Purchasing power parity shows the ability of people to purchase items of their requirement which are taken for comparison.

Question 4.
Suppose records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period of time. From this, can we conclude that all sections of the economy have become better? Illustrate your answer with an example.
Increase in the average income in a country cannot be a guarantee of overall progress of the economy. The data of Maharashtra and Kerala show that there are other factors which also need to be analysed before arriving at a conclusion. These factors include infant mortality rate, literacy rate, proper health facilities, etc.

Question 5.
From the text, find out the per capita income level of low-income countries as per World Development Reports.

• Sri Lanka – $4390 • India –$ 3139
• Pakistan – $2225 Question 6. Write a paragraph on your notion of what should India do, or achieve, to become a developed country. Answer: India is a vast country with a large population. Although it has been doing well since its Independence, it needs much more to achieve to become a developed country. The country still lags behind on several parameters of human development such as life expectancy, infant mortality, and literacy rate. The absolute number of infants who die before completing one year is very high. This shows that there is no proper facilities for healthcare, drinking water, sanitation and nutrition in our country. A great number of our children are victims of malnutrition. In rural India, the situation is worse. Hence, India needs to develop facilities to improve on these parameters, to become a developed country. Let’s Work These Out (NCERT Textbook page 12) Question 1. Look at data in Table 1.3 and 1.4 on Textbook Page 10. Is Maharashtra ahead of Bihar in literacy rate, etc. as it is in terms of per capita income? Answer: Yes; Maharashtra is far ahead of Bihar in both these parameters. Literacy rate in Maharashtra is 82% while it is only 62% in Bihar as per the census of 2011. In terms of per capita income, Maharashtra is again far ahead of Bihar. It is ₹ 1,07,670 in Maharashtra while ₹ 28, 772 in Bihar. Question 2. Think of other examples where collective provision of goods and services is cheaper than individual provision. Answer: In factories/industries, in manufacturing, in agriculture etc. we find collective provision of goods and services cheaper than individual provision. Question 3. Does availability of good health and educational facilities depend only on amount of money spent by the government on these facilities? What other factors could be relevant? Answer: No. It does not depend only on amount of money spent. Although it is a major factor, other factors also play an important role in it. These factors include availability of required number of doctors and quality of medicines in case of health facilities. In education, a good number of qualified and dedicated teachers, well-constructed school buildings, etc. are important. Question 4. In Tamil Nadu, 75 percent of the people living in rural areas use a ration shop, whereas in Jharkhand only 8 percent of rural people do so. Where would people be better off and why? Answer: People would be better off in Tamil Nadu because in this state the Public Distribution System (PDS) functions well which enables more and more people to use ration shops to get things like foodgrains, sugar, kerosene oil etc. at reasonable rate. Needless to say that these things are basic necessities of human beings. Their easy availability ensures better health and nutritional status of people in that state (Tamil Nadu). ### Economics Class 10 Chapter 1 NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers Question 1. Development of a country can generally be determined by (i) its per capita income (ii) its average literacy level (iii) health status of its people (iv) all the above. Answer: (iv) all the above Question 2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India? (i) Bangladesh (ii) Sri Lanka (iii) Nepal (iv) Pakistan Answer: (ii) Sri Lanka Question 3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is ₹ 5000. If the income of three families is ₹ 4000, ₹ 7000 and ₹ 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family? (i) ₹ 7500 (ii) ₹ 3000 (iii) ₹ 2000 (iv) ₹ 6000 Answer: (iv) ₹ 6000 Question 4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What . are the limitations of this criterion, if any? Answer: Per capita income is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries. But there are limitations of this criterion- • It covers only the economic aspect and thus ignores many other factors which affect the development such as literacy rate, life expectancy, healthcare facilities, environment, etc. • It does not tell us about how this average income is distributed among the people in the individual countries. Question 5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank? Answer: The World Bank uses per capita income as the most important criterion for development. If we go into the depth, we will find that the level of income is not an adequate measure of the level of development. UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income. Thus, UNDP gives much importance to those factors which help in improving the quality of life and in making the citizens more capable and productive. Question 6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development. Answer: Whenever we need to analyse a big sample size, we find it difficult to analyse individual data. Averages are used in such cases. But averages have some limitations • Averages do not give the true picture. For example, the per capita income does not show the distribution of income among people. • Averages do not show the percentage of the poor in the population. They also hide disparities. Question 7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Maharashtra. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss. Answer: Although the per capita income of Maharashtra is more than that of Kerala, the state (Maharashtra) shows a very high child mortality rate compared to Kerala. Literacy rate and the net attendance ratio of children in age group 14-15 are higher in Kerala, as compared to Maharashtra. Bihar is at the bottom which reveals its poor record on Human Development Index. Question 8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now? Answer: The present sources of energy that are used by the people in India are firewood, coal, crude oil, dung cake, etc. Solar power could be the other possibilities fifty years from now. It can reduce our dependency on the fossil fuel and can give us security against energy crisis in the future. India, being a tropical country has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy and therefore it should be encouraged. Question 9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? Answer: Development i.e. progress does not only mean securing a better present, but it also means securing a better future for the coming generations. Sustainable development means development should take place without undue draining of resources, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations. Thus, the issue of sustainability is important for development because if natural resources are not sustained, then development will be hindered and will stop after some time. This also compels us to think that we should minimise our needs as far as possible so that future generations may not face crisis of anything. Question 10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss. Answer: This famous quote from Mahatma Gandhi shows his concern about resource conservation. What he meant to say is that our earth has no dearth of resources but they should be used judiciously and not exploited over a few years. Our greedy attitude would push our future generations into perils. So, we need to think about and stop overusing resources. We should control our greed and take as little from the nature as is really essential for us. Such an attitude will not only save us from dangers but also the generations to come. Question 11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you. Answer: We find lack of greenery around us. The air quality is also degrading very fast. It seems as if we are living in gas chambers. Going outside in such an environment is just like inviting several health problems. Children and old people are the worst affected. The condition of the river that flows through the city is not better than a filthy drain. It has become a dumping ground for the city people. These are a few examples of environmental degradation. It is a matter of serious concern for all of us. We must think collectively and take some measures to curb this situation. Question 12. For each of the items given in Table 1.6 (Textbook Page 13), find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom. Answer: Following are the top and bottom-ranked countries on various parameters  Various Parameters Top Country Bottom Country Per capita income in US$ Sri Lanka Myanmar Life expectancy at birth Sri Lanka Myanmar Literacy rate for 15+ yrs Sri Lanka Bangladesh Gross enrolment ratio Sri Lanka Pakistan HDI rank in the world Sri Lanka Nepal

Question 13.
The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions.

 State Male (%) Female (%) Kerala 22 19 Karnataka 36 38 Madhya Pradesh 43 42 All States 37 36

(i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) Can you guess why around 40 percent of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.
(i) People of Kerala get better nutrition than the people of Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) It is unfortunate that around 40 percent of people in our country do not get proper nutrition.
Several reasons can be held responsible for this

• The Public Distribution System is not functioning well.
• Foodgrain production is not evenly distributed.
• Supply chain is also erratic and unsystematic.

Invite three different speakers to talk to you about the development of your region. Ask them all the questions that come to your mind. Discuss these ideas in groups. Each group should prepare a wall chart, giving reasons about ideas that you agree or do not agree with.
For self-attempt.

### Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 NCERT Intext Activity Questions and Answers

Study Table 1.5 of Textbook Page 12 carefully and fill in the blanks in the following paragraphs. For this, you may need to make calculations based on the table.
Table: Educational Achievement of Rural Population of Uttar Pradesh

 Category Male Female Literacy rate for rural population 52% 19% Literacy rate for children in age group 10-14 years 68% 39% Percentage of rural children aged 10-14 attending school 64% 31%

(a) The literacy rate for all age groups, including young and old, is for rural males and ………….. for rural females. However, it is not just that these many adults could not attend school but that there are …………….. who are currently not in school.

(b) It is clear from the table that ……………… % of rural girls and …………. % of rural boys are not attending school. Therefore, literacy among children in the age group 10-14 is as high as ………………. % for rural females and % for rural males.

(c) This high level of illiteracy among …………. age group, even after more than 60 years of our independence, is most disturbing. In many other states also we are nowhere near realisation of the constitutional goal of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, which was expected to be achieved by 1960.